Shield Bugs of the genus Elasmucha - a Model Insect Group for Parental Care Demonstration within Field Excursions in Central and Northern Europe

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Lubomír Hanel
Jana Hanelová


Thanks to inclusion of excursions (fields trips) during biology lessons  students can directly participate in the process of science and improve their scientific reasoning skills. This paper presents parental care as an important life-history animal strategy.  This phenomenon can be easily demonstrated in invertebrates, e.g. in bugs (Heteroptera). The procedures described here offer step-by-step instructions on how bugs are used to guide students within research field-trip project. Students can observe and investigate this interesting behaviour on selected bug species in natural conditions within field trips. These activities can increase student´s involvement  and interest in learning biology. Although the activity mentioned above is aimed at high school students, it is easy to adapt it to other age groups. Presented proposals of school research can be used in various European regions with the vegetation formed by birches (Betula sp.).


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Hanel, L., & Hanelová, J. (2014). Shield Bugs of the genus Elasmucha - a Model Insect Group for Parental Care Demonstration within Field Excursions in Central and Northern Europe. Envigogika, 9(1).
Reviewed Papers
Author Biographies

Lubomír Hanel

Professor of Ecology, Department of Biology and Environmental Studies, Charles University Prague, M.R.Rettigové 4, Praha 1, 116 39, Czech Republic

Jana Hanelová

Kladruby 33, 257 62, Czech Republic


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